A socially constructed designation of people based on an arbitrary classification of physical characteristics. People are categorized into races according to their skin color, facial shape and other external characteristics. The notion of race is widely used in sociological and historical contexts, and racial categories are deeply intertwined with poverty, disenfranchisement, disparities in access to opportunity and other social problems.
Scientific research on human evolution is re-examining the nature of distinct racial divisions in humans. Although many of the adaptive traits used to define races are correlated with environmental factors, these adaptive traits are not the only factors that contribute to overall genetic differentiation. Furthermore, different adaptive traits may define discordant groups, and a single trait does not necessarily distinguish between populations that share a common ancestry.
Most anthropologists today agree that distinct biological races in humans do not exist. However, anthropologists continue to use the term race to discuss sociological and historical phenomena that have been shaped by racial categories. This is especially the case in areas like slavery, segregation and discrimination. Moreover, a large body of research continues to examine the consequences of racial categorizations in legal and criminal settings – for example, policing and disproportionate incarceration of minority groups.
In the US, the largely racially-driven division of society into a few dominant “racial” groups is an underlying foundation that makes it difficult to address our most pressing challenges, such as inequality and poverty. The legacy of racial classifications is particularly evident in the stark differences between White and non-White Americans, who face significantly more economic and social barriers than their counterparts in other parts of the world.
While a scientific basis for the concept of race is lacking, the social implications of the concept are profound. This is especially true in the United States, where racial categories are used to define a host of policies and systems, including income inequality, health care, and policing.
It is important to understand the distinction between the concepts of race and ethnicity. Race refers to a person’s physical characteristics, such as bone structure and skin, hair and eye color. Ethnicity, on the other hand, is a socially defined category of identity based on cultural factors, such as nationality or regional culture, ancestry and language.
Nevertheless, the social and historic significance of the concept of race makes it relevant for researchers in many fields. For example, many studies disaggregate data by race and ethnicity, to monitor disparities in health and other outcomes, such as educational achievement and employment rates. In such cases, it is critical to understand how a researcher’s definition of race or ethnicity differs from those of other researchers. This will allow the researcher to evaluate whether their findings are valid. For example, if a researcher’s definition of race or ethicity is not consistent with the US Census definition of those terms, the results of the study could be biased. In addition, a researcher’s choice of a racial or ethnic definition can also affect how the data are analyzed and presented.